The use of synthetic chemical dyes in various industrial processes, including paper and pulp manufacturing, plastics, dyeing of cloth, leather treatment and printing, has increased considerably over the last few years, resulting in the release of dye-containing industrial effluents into the soil and aquatic ecosystems. The textile industry generates high-polluting wastewaters and their treatment is a very serious problem due to high total dissolved solids (TDS), presence of toxic heavy metals, and the non-biodegradable nature of the dyestuffs in the effluent. The chapters in this book provide an overview of the problem and its solution from different angles. These problems and solutions are presented in a genuinely holistic way by world-renowned researchers. Discussed are various promising techniques to remove dyes, including the use of nanotechnology, ultrasound, microwave, catalysts, biosorption, enzymatic treatments, advanced oxidation processes, etc.