Food proteins are of great interest, not only because of their nutritional importance and their functionality in foods, but also for their detrimental effects. Although proteins from milk, meats (including fish and poultry), eggs, cereals, legumes, and oilseeds have been the traditional sources of protein in the human diet, potentially any proteins from a biological source could serve as a food protein. The primary role of protein in the diet is to provide the building materials for the synthesis of muscle and other tissues, and they play a critical role in many biological processes. They are also responsible for food texture, color, and flavor. Today, food proteins are extracted, modified, and incorporated into processed foods to impart specific functional properties. They can also have adverse effects in the diet: proteins, such as walnuts, pecans, almonds, and cashews, soybean, wheat, milk, egg, crustacean, and fish proteins can be powerful allergens for some people.
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