This contributed volume is inspired by the seminal discovery and identification of C60. Starting with a comprehensive discussion featuring graphene based nanostructures, subsequent chapters include topological descriptions of matrices, polynomials and indices, and an extended analysis of the symmetry and topology of nanostructures. Carbon allotropes such as diamond and its connection to higher-dimensional spaces is explored along with important mathematical and topological considerations. Further topics covered include spontaneous symmetry breaking in graphene, polyhedral carbon structures, nanotube junction energetics, and cyclic polyines as relatives of nanotubes and fullerenes. This book is aimed at researchers active in the study of carbon materials science and technology.